Gold Standard for the Global Goals
Gender Equality Requirements & Guidelines
Version 1.1 – Published March 2018
Table of Contents
OUR VISION: Climate security and sustainable development for all.
OUR MISSION: To catalyse more ambitious climate action to achieve the Global Goals through robust standards and verified impacts.
|Status of Document:||Version 1.1 – Effective 1st March 2018|
|Next planned update:||02nd September 2019|
Several organisations and individuals have contributed to the development of these Requirements and Guidelines.
Sincere thanks to:
- Rachel Mahmud (Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves)
- Allie Glinski (International Council for Research on Women)
- Annemarije Kooijman (HIVOS)
- Sudha Padmanabha (Fair Climate Network)
- Leisa Perch (Independent Consultant)
- Inka Ivette Schomer (The World Bank Group)
- Adriana Maria Eftimie (International Finance Corporation)
- Elizabeth Eggerts (UN-REDD)
- Meinrad Burer (EcoAct)
The Author Team:
Nidhi Tandon, Shannon Pritchard, Abhishek Goyal, Sriskandh Subramanian
We would also like to sincerely thank our funding partner The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg for their support.
|Agency||The capacity to make decisions about one’s own life and act on them to achieve a desired outcome, free of violence, retribution, or fear.|
|Empowerment||The ability and agency of every woman to shape her own destiny, exercise her rights and make her own choices. Women’s empowerment has five components: women’s sense of self-worth; their right to have and to determine choices; their right to have access to opportunities and resources; their right to have the power to control their own lives, both within and outside the home; and their ability to influence the direction of social change to create a more just social and economic order, nationally and internationally.|
|Gender||Gender refers to the social, behavioural, and cultural attributes, expectations, and norms associated with being male or female.|
|Gender equality||As enshrined in international and national constitutions and other human rights agreements, refers to equal rights, power, responsibilities and opportunities for women and men, as well as equal consideration of the interests, needs and priorities of women and men.|
|Gender equity||Refers to the process of being fair to women and men. To ensure equity, measures often need to be taken to compensate (or reduce) disparity for historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from otherwise operating on an equitable basis. Equity leads to equality.(UNDP 2017)|
|Gender responsive||Refers to the consideration of gender norms, roles and relations and to addressing inequality generated by unequal norms, roles and relations through remedial action beyond creating gender awareness.|
|Gender sensitive||Refers to raising awareness and consideration of gender norms, roles and relations but does not necessarily address inequality generated by unequal norms, roles or relations through remedial action beyond creating gender awareness.|
|Social inclusion||Refers to the process of improving the terms for individuals and groups to take part in society, and the process of improving the ability, opportunity, and dignity of those disadvantaged on the basis of their identity to take part in society.(World Bank)|
* If not otherwise indicated, relevant definitions are drawn and adapted from the GCF gender policy or the Annex to the GEF Gender Equality Action Plan (GEAP)
1.1 As outlined in the Gold Standard Gender Policy, gender certification is available at two levels. The first level is mandatory; the second level is optional.
1. Mandatory Gender-Sensitive Requirements – These requirements are mandatory for all projects (regardless of type of project) seeking Gold Standard certification. They include compliance with the Gender Safeguarding Principles and Requirements, and gender sensitive stakeholder consultations.
2. Optional Gender-Responsive Guidelines – These apply only to those projects that fulfill all the Gender Sensitive Requirements and further seek gender certification at the performance level. These projects must proactively conduct gender analysis and undertake actions to intentionally address gender gaps and contribute to gender equality and women’s empowerment. Such projects are then eligible to obtain Gold Standard Certified SDG ImpactsTM under SDG 5 (as well as other relevant SDGs).
1.2 The Gender Equality Requirements & Guidelines will apply to all new projects that are seeking certification under the Gold Standard for Global Goals (GS4GG). These Requirements & Guidelines will not apply retroactively to projects registered with previous versions of Gold Standard and transitioning to GS4GG.
Notes to Project Developers
All projects submitted for Gold Standard certification must have GENDER-SENSITIVE PROCEDURES/ STRATEGIES AND MUST ADHERE TO THE GENDER PRINCIPLES AS ESTABLISHED IN THE GOLD STANDARD GENDER POLICY. STEPS 1 – 3 require all project developers to complete a gender safeguards assessment and gender-sensitive stakeholder consultations as part of initial project design and feasibility. Meeting these requirements enables projects to claim to be ‘Gender-Sensitive’. This is a mandatory foundational requirement that applies to all Gold Standard certifications. This level of certification is based on adherence to process as described in Steps 1-3.
Project developers may further apply the optional STEPS 4 – 6 to the project whereby Gold Standard will determine whether these additional steps merit ‘Gender-Responsive’ certification. In this case project developers commit to a PRO-ACTIVE GENDER-RESPONSIVE APPROACH that aligns with the targets of SDG 5 and other relevant SDGs over and above the mandatory Gender-Sensitive Requirements. This level of certification requires (i) deeper gender analysis; (ii) gender-targeted project goals and action; and (iii) project-specific gender indicators and parameters. This level of certification is based on actual project performance to achieve gender equality and is guided by Steps 4-6.
The Requirements and Guidelines are divided into these two categories through a series of six (6) steps. Project teams can apply these steps as they move through the design, implementation and submission stages through to Gold Standard for certification. The six steps supplement and complement the current Gold Standard principles and are an integral part of the project submission.
The purpose and essence of each step is captured as notes in the green coloured box; the mandatory questions to be answered for that step are given in the orange coloured box and the Requirements are given in the blue coloured box. Project developers are required to carefully look at the notes to understand the intent of the Step, read through the Requirements and Guidelines and submit responses in the Project Design Document (PDD) to all mandatory questions. Steps 1-3 require four mandatory questions to be answered; and Steps 4-5, should a project seek performance certification for gender impacts, require a further six mandatory questions to be answered. In some of the Steps, there are also some guiding questions to assist the project developer in meeting the requirements of the Step. Providing answers to guiding questions is not mandatory.
2.1 STEP 1: BASIC CONTEXT
2.1.1 Provide evidence that the Project concept and design covers the overall societal context from a gendered perspective.
126.96.36.199 Align the project to the Gold Standard Gender Policy.
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?
The main objective of the Gender Policy is to strengthen the Gold Standard and its stakeholders’ responsiveness to the multiple, culturally-derived principles of gender equality and women’s empowerment and to address and account for the links between gender equality, natural resources management and environmental sustainability.
The Gender Policy applies to all projects applying for Gold Standard certification, spells out the principles for achieving Gender Responsive certification at the performance level, and through supporting technical guidance on gender, solidifies the operational requirements for stakeholder involvement and partnership in the design, implementation, and evaluation of projects.
Does the project reflect the key issues and requirements of Gender Sensitive design and implementation as outlined in the Gender Policy? Explain how.
188.8.131.52 Conduct background gender research and align project to existing national policies, strategies, and best practices.
Does the project align with existing country policies, strategies and best practices? Explain how.
- Ensure that the project aligns with the national gender strategy (if host country has one) or other public policy for gender equality and women’s empowerment;
- Align the project with other national development strategies that promote equal opportunities, whether in the intervention region or the sector;
- Refer to lessons learned from comparable development projects or programmes in the region that provide useful context on gender issues, risks and opportunities;
- Refer to the national report to The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) for data or context relevant to the project.
Apply the Gold Standard Safeguarding Principles & Requirements and take note of the gender guidelines and examples provided in the guidance notes. Country-level safeguards shall supersede the Gold Standard Requirements if they go beyond Gold Standard Requirements.
Does the project address the questions raised in the Gold Standard Safeguarding Principles & Requirements document? Explain how.
2.2.1 Gold Standard may direct/support whether an expert stakeholder opinion (with a specific emphasis on gender and environment expertise) is required to support the gender safeguards assessment process depending on project type, scale and context.
2.3 STEP 3: CONDUCT STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATION
Apply the Gold Standard Stakeholder Consultation & Engagement Procedure, Requirements & Guidelines and take note of the gender guidelines.
Does the project apply the Gold Standard Stakeholder Consultation & Engagement Procedure, Requirements & Guidelines? Explain how.
NOTE: Gold Standard may require that the Project seek the input of a Gender and Environment Expert/Stakeholder and to include their recommendations in the Project design.
2.3.1 Steps 2 and 3 together provide the Project Developer with a consolidated assessment of the Project’s purpose, who the Project will engage with and ensures against the project contributing to any further harm.
Gender-Responsive certification seeks to:
1. Build on the first three steps to conduct a comprehensive gender analysis and establish a Project baseline with gender goals and indicators.
2. Provide tangible evidence to demonstrate how the Project goes beyond Gender Sensitivity (reducing risks, minimising harm and recognising gender differences), towards innovative ways to achieve specific Gender Responsive objectives.
3. Distinguish the Project’s results through establishment of the precise gender claims that can be quantified, qualified and documented in support of a strong business case and investor interest in gender equality outcomes.
Gender-responsive certification requires Projects to establish and commit to the following as minimum requirements:
1) The project collects and uses sex-disaggregated data and qualitative information to analyse and track gender issues
2) The gender analysis of the project examines:
3) The project’s monitoring framework includes gender-responsive targets and indicators to monitor gender equality results against the established baseline
NOTE: Gold Standard may require that the Project seek the input of an Expert Stakeholder and to include their recommendations in the Project design. For projects seeking gender-responsive certification, the Gold Standard VVBs audit teams shall include gender consultants with relevant sector expertise to verify the gender claims of the project.
3.1.1 Integrate Steps 1-3 into the gender analysis and establish project baseline. Inputs from Steps 1-3 notably the stakeholder consultations and safeguards assessment will feed into the Gender analysis.
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?
Gender analysis is a systematic way to identify context-specific key issues and factors that contribute to gender inequalities. It may consist of primary or secondary research, or a combination of both. It is impossible to integrate gender equality into projects or activities without clearly understanding gender issues within the targeted population. A gender analysis enables project developers to understand the implications of gender on climate change mitigation, adaptation and disaster risk reduction interventions (and vice-versa), and design appropriate interventions that can benefit all members of a community. It also allows the project developers to develop indicators to better assess how initiatives have engaged with or impacted different groups.
Gender analysis explores individual, relational and structural factors, within both public and private spheres, as individuals are likely to experience gender differently, or hold different roles, within different groups or relationships. Gender analysis attempts to answer at least three key sets of questions:
What are the gender-based inequalities, discriminations and rights denials in each context? How do these issues intersect with other discrimination factors such as age, ethnicity, disability, class, etc.?
How will gender relations influence the effectiveness and sustainability of the project activity or result? How will project processes and activities be designed to reduce inequalities and increase equality?
How will the proposed results affect the relative status of women and men? Will they exacerbate or reduce inequalities?
Step 4.a Develop an applied gender analysis to gather evidence for the project baseline, design and development
Gender-responsive projects require a gender analysis to understand the social, economic and political factors underlying climate change-exacerbated gender inequality, and the potential contribution of women and men to mitigate and adapt to climate change.
|Conduct a gender analysis that should, at minimum, explain the following considerations:
How does the Project concept and description actively contribute to climate security and sustainable development in gender-responsive ways? Refer Step 4 (b) below to answer this question.
How does the Project gender analysis effectively differentiate how men and women, separately and together, contribute to and benefit from climate security and sustainable development? Towards adaptation and mitigation or both?
Is there a baseline description which includes both gender equality and women’s economic empowerment factors? Please provide. This will help in identifying relevant SDG target in step 4 (b) below.
Examples of questions to guide Gender Analysis:
- Are there gaps in development outcomes that males and females experience in the areas of human endowment, formal employment, ownership and control of assets and voice and agency?
- Are there design and implementation gaps relevant to the Project goals and/ or key issues such as safety, security, employment and entrepreneurship that affect men and women differently?
- Are there gaps between males and females, especially in light of the relevant country and sector?
- Are the results of stakeholder consultations with men and women and/or NGOs that work with these groups included in the gender analysis?
- Does the gender analysis draw on available and current quantitative and qualitative data?
- Does the analysis consider the potential negative/adverse impact of Project activities, for instance on women’s unpaid work, time use, access to income or assets, and risk of gender-based violence?
- Does the gender analysis consider which specific measures can be or have been identified to address gaps?
- Are men and women equally involved in making decisions about the Project actions and goals?
- Are women and men / girls and boys taken equally into account in the target group? How can it be ensured that they derive equitable benefits from the interventions?
- Do measures need to be taken to ensure equitable access to resources and impacts by disadvantaged groups (women or men)?
- Are the actions explicitly broken down as such (for women versus men)? How are they distinguished?
To help guide your Gender Analysis and development of Gender Indicators – consider the following:
- ACDI/VOCA- Gender Analysis, Assessment, and Audit Manual & Toolkit
- Harvard- Gender Roles Framework or Gender Analysis Framework
- FAO- Socio-Economic and Gender Analysis Field Handbook
- Gender Analysis in Natural Resource Management | Land Portal
- Gender Analysis for Sustainable Livelihoods and Participatory Governance in Rwanda
- How to Conduct a Gender Analysis | USAID ASSIST Project
Step 4.b Align the Project with SDG targets
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) make an explicit commitment to gender, both as a standalone goal on gender equality and women’s empowerment (SDG 5) as well as a crosscutting theme across the SDGs. SDG 13 on combating climate change aims to promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing states, including focusing on women, youth, and local and marginalised communities.
SDG 5 seeks to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. Gold Standard expects that SDG 5 will be one of the three SDGs that the Project aligns with. Projects can also consider gender related targets under SDG 8 and SDG 10:
Can the Project address at least one SDG target each from category 1 and category 2? Explain how.
SDG Targets, Category 1:
- Recognise and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate.
- Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision making in political, economic and public life.
- Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws.
- Enhance the use of enabling technologies including information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women.
- Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels.
- By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value.
- By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all (within a country), irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status.
SDG Targets, Category 2:
- End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere.
- Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation.
- Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation.
- Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences.
- Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment.
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?
The project design, goals and outcomes can now build on available evidence of the gender gaps in markets (formal and informal), institutions and households and apply the country-driven approach to close persistent gender gaps. This raises the bar beyond limiting the assessment to re-stating key gender equality gaps. The Project, in understanding and articulating key gender constraints as well as opportunities, will seek to narrow gaps, lift constraints, support opportunities and feed into a more active and engaged dialogue with stakeholders on key levers for sustainable change. The Project goals may also go beyond conventional treatment of gender as pertaining to average women in the country to consider the full diversity of constraints facing women and men as affected by their age, marital status, income levels, ethnicity, physical abilities, locations and mobility.
Based on findings, the Project’s commitment to gendered actions and Project outcomes shall be defined.
Can the Project articulate the statement on gender outcomes? This shall be further reflected in the final Project claim detailed in Step 6. The Project statement can include the following:
Step 5.a Establish Project gender goals (actions):
The economic empowerment goals and social empowerment goals tables below provide guidance to Project Developers on potential gender goals, actions and indicators. Projects will need to demonstrate close alignment to gender goals and choose relevant gender indicators. The list of gender responsive indicators given in tables below is not exhaustive and project developers can propose their own indicators. Realistic project goals need to be set against baselines identified in Step 4 (a) above.
Economic Empowerment Goals Table:
|Economic Empowerment Goals||Project Action||Example of gender-responsive indicators|
|1) Income and expenditures||Closing of gender gaps in earnings and income generation opportunities||
|2) Economic assets||Closing of gender gaps in asset access, ownership and control; Absolute increase in women’s relative control and ownership of an asset||
|3) Quality employment||Closing of gender gaps in labour market segregation and paid and unpaid employment||
|4) Education||Closing of literacy gap between boys and girls and parity in enrolment rates in primary, secondary and tertiary education||
Social Empowerment Goals Table:
|Project Action||Example of gender-responsive indicators|
|1) Individual and community empowerment including meaningful participation and leadership, stronger social networks and agency||Closing of gender gaps in women and men’s participations and leadership and access to networks
Closing of gender gaps in leadership positions and decision making at the individual, household, community and political level
|2) Applied skills and training||Closing of gender gaps and stereotypes in women’s and men’s access to applied skills and training||
|3) Secure access to health, reproductive health and rights||Closing of gender gaps in accessing health services and entitlements expressed as a ratio||
|4) Access to infrastructure services and technologies||Closing of gender gaps in access to infrastructure services||
|5) Rest and leisure||Closing of gender gaps in women and men’s unpaid time poverty and labor burden||
Step 5.b Establish meaningful gender performance indicators for the Project
Gender performance indicators and sex-disaggregated targets can now be incorporated into the Project results framework.
WHAT ARE GENDER INDICATORS?
Gender indicators are established to measure and compare the situation of women and men over time. Gender indicators can refer to quantitative indicators (based on statistics broken down by sex) or to qualitative indicators (based on women’s and men’s experiences, attitudes, opinions and feelings).
Indicators play a crucial role in the gender responsive process throughout the policy cycle. Quantitative and qualitative indicators must enable ongoing monitoring and evaluation of whether the Project’s gender equality objectives are being met and assessing the gender effect of Project activities. If objectives are not being met, it could be essential to re-assess the Project strategy and make amendments to ensure improvements. Gender indicators usually express how distant a certain situation is from gender equality and are usually expressed as gaps, ratios and generally as measures of ‘gender inequalities’. Gender-blind indicators are those that do not allow the evaluator to uncover gender differences and gender relations in a society because they are not collected or cannot be collected in a sex-disaggregated way. For example “community participation“ is a gender-blind indicator but if collected separately for men and for women, can become a gender indicators.
For example, the Programa Fase de Forestación (PROFAFOR) carbon sequestration project in Ecuador set a minimum plot size at 50 hectares, de facto excluding some smallholders, most whom are women. In Uganda, “the availability of land and capital” of local farmers was a determining factor for participation, forcing smallholders without idle land into making the difficult choice between planting trees for carbon forestry or cultivating food crops. This approach ensures that projects have equal impacts on men and women, or at least do not negatively impact women or reinforce gender inequalities. Gender indicators also explore the nuances of gendered relationships, through things like participation in household decision-making. This goes beyond simple collection of sex-disaggregated data; rather the data point itself has a gendered component.
Economic and social indicators framed by ecological systems need to systematically integrate gender-disaggregated and gender-sensitive data throughout – from needs assessments and baseline indicators to program and Project outcome targets, process, results and impact assessments.
- Projects may consider how their gender indicators go beyond economic equity and socio-political empowerment indicators to include climate-relevant environmental and ecological factors, including access to public commons.
- Projects should indicate if any indicators were developed at the ground level in close and continued consultation with communities and women, describing where and how.
As part of Project design, determining which indicators to use from social and economic empowerment goal charts above can have profound implications for Project outcomes. Establishing quantitative criteria alone, for instance, can have the unintended effect of excluding entire constituencies of Project beneficiaries.
The following questions can guide the Project Developer to focus on selecting appropriate indicators.
- Will the Project positively or negatively engage women and men?
- Will it impose increased time or care burdens on women relative to men?
- Is there a process in place to track and verify gender impacts? (positive and /or negative)
- Is there an improvement in the ratio of women to men engaging in the Project decisions and on-the-ground monitoring?
- Is there an increased sense of confidence and empowerment among the Project beneficiaries?
Define Monitoring Parameters for each of the above Gender Responsive Indicators chosen in Step 5(a) above.
Project developers will need to identify relevant monitoring parameters to monitor and evaluate the progress towards equality enabled by the project as reflected in chosen indicator.
RESOURCES: To help guide development of Gender monitoring indicators – consider the following resources:
- The World Bank’s PPP website with collated resources across the following sectors: Agriculture, Education, Energy, Health, Information and Communications Technology (ICT), Transport, Water and Sanitation. See: http://ppp.worldbank.org/public-private-partnership/ppp-sector/gender-impacts-ppps/sector-specific-materials/sector-specific-materials
- Asian Development Bank (2013) Tool Kit on Gender Equality Results and Indicators https://www.adb.org/documents/tool-kit-gender-equality-results-and-indicators
- The Gender Data Portal for the latest sex-disaggregated data and gender statistics covering demography, education, health, economic opportunities, public life and decision-making, and agency, see http://datatopics.worldbank.org/gender/
- GACC tool see http://cleancookstoves.org/resources/490.html
EXAMPLE from ADB (2013) Gender Equality Dimension: Voice and Rights
|Sample Indicators||Sample monitoring parameters|
|Women and men participate equitably in decision making in the energy sector
|Women’s and men’s rights are protected, in relation to jobs lost due to the decommissioning of polluting and inefficient energy plants||
Project Developers should consider these aspects and establish the Project’s key gender indicators.
There are a few cross-cutting qualitative and quantitative issues that gender indicators can address:
- At the monetary level: How much money, dollar for dollar, reaches women and girls at the local levels of consultation and how are decisions made around disbursement, use, investment and reinvestments?
- At the empowerment level: How many women and how many men are actively involved and engaged in reaching those decisions (about money disbursement, use, investment, and reinvestment) and in acting on those decisions? How many women participate in determining a valid indicator that best captures change for them?
- At the environmental/ecological level: How are access points to natural resources that poor men and women depend protected? How are men and women involved in the decisions and actions around stewarding natural resources for future generations?
- At the gender-differentiated level: What kinds of gender-differentiated evidence, perspectives, narratives and realities are captured, recorded and learned from as a direct result of their own measurements of progress?
Track and record changes that the Project can support both in terms of gender-equitable processes and in terms of Gender-Responsive performance.
Describe how the Project delivers on its commitment statement (end of step 4) and the proposed Project gender goals, actions and commitments (from step 5).
What gender outcomes can this project realistically claim? Describe in one or two succinct and clear paragraphs.
Use the following chart to guide your
|Gender responsive checklist for project claims||Yes||No||Partially||Not Relevant|
|1) The gender analysis of the project examines:
|2) The project collects and uses sex-disaggregated data and qualitative information to analyse and track gender issues|
|3) Project is designed to meet the different needs and priorities of women and men|
|4) The project’s monitoring framework includes gender-responsive targets and indicators (refer to page 19 to 22 for a list of sample indicators) to monitor gender equality results against the established baseline|
|5) Women/gender focused groups, associations or gender units in partner organisations are fully engaged and consulted with.|
Note that providing information in this chart would aid self-assessment, Verification by the Gold Standard VVB, review by Gold Standard and ultimately the assignment of certification.